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The Defense-in-Depth (DiD) concept is internationally applied successfully in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. In nuclear power, DiD is an international standard. It is based on a structure of several security levels which are independent of one another to reduce the probability of occurrence of unexpected events or damage. The principle is that in the case of a security level failure /non-availability, the next level becomes effective, so that the effects of events are minimized.

DiD uses among others the following principles:

  • Redundancy of safety functions
  • Diversity/dissimilarity of safety devices
  • Spatial separation
  • Single failure protection

The concept of the DiD, which has been successfully applied in nuclear technology for many years, can be used in all sectors which are subject to increased safety requirements and/or have an increased risk profile and thus achieve a significant improvement in the safety level.

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